Liquefied hydrogen is presently mainly used for space applications and the semiconductor industry. While clean energy applications, e.g. the automotive sector, currently contribute to this demand with a small share only, their demand may see a significant boost in the next years with the need for large-scale liquefaction plants exceeding the current plant sizes by far.
Linde Kryotechnik has more than forty years of experience in building hydrogen liquefaction plants. Industrial hydrogen liquefaction uses a variety of processes with helium, hydrogen, or gas mixtures as coolant.
Hydrogen liquefaction for small-scale plants with a maximum capacity of 2.5 tons per day (tpd) is accomplished with a Brayton refrigeration cycle using helium as a refrigerant. This technology is characterized by low investment costs but lower process efficiency and hence higher operating costs.
For larger plants, a hydrogen Claude cycle is used, characterized by higher investment but lower operating costs.
Please find examples of Linde hydrogen plants below. Due to non-disclosure agreements, the reference list is not complete.
|Hydrogen liquefier Brayton Cycle||Hydrogen liquefier Claude Cycle|
|Beijing, China||Leuna, Germany (2 liquefiers)|
|Mahendragiri, India||Iwatani, Japan (6 liquefiers)|
|Kimitsu, Japan||Linde, USA (5 liquefiers)|
|Saggonda, India||Magog, Canada|
|... and more|